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Based on a set of ecological and economic indicators derived from spatially explicit, high-resolution landscape models, we compare today's land use, represented in a base scenario (BS), with the MS.
The selected ecological indicators relate to soil quality, water, and biodiversity and thus cover the main environmental landscape functions that may be impaired in intensively used agricultural landscapes.
Results highlight a strongly unbalanced allocation of private and public goods in today's landscape with severe deficits in environmental and societal landscape features, but a significantly higher land rent. Integrating landscape-based values - Norwegian monitoring of agricultural landscapes.
This approach may inspire policy makers and land users by providing a methodology for the design of alternative multifunctional futures in five steps: (1) documentation of today's landscape structure and land use at the scale of uniformly managed land units; (2) detection of functional deficits of today's landscape considering environmental (soil contamination, groundwater production, water quality, biodiversity), economic (land rent), and societal (landscape perception by its population) attributes; (3) compilation of a catalogue of alternative land uses (including linear landscape elements) suitable to minimize the detected functional deficits; (4) rule-based modification of today's land-use pattern into a normative scenario; and (5) comparison of today's landscape and the normative scenario by applying the model network ITEM.
- Lichtzahl 1 Tiefschattenpflanze 2 zwischen 1 und 3 stehend 3 Schattenpflanze 4 zwischen 3 und 5 stehend 5 Halbschattenpflanze 6 zwischen 5 und 7 stehend 7 Halblichtpflanze 8 Lichtpflanze 9 Volllichtpflanze x indifferent - Temperaturzahl 1 Kältezeiger, nur in hohen Gebirgslagen 2 zwischen 1 u.
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2007), alternative pathways toward multifunctionality and sustainable development, such as a sound implementation of agri-environment schemes at the landscape scale (Herzog 2005), are urgently needed.
Based on the premise that the global demand for multifunctionality, sustainability, and ecosystem services will substantially increase in the future (Alcamo et al. 2007), and that agriculture has dramatically increased its ecological footprint (Butler et al.
The selected economic indicators provide a deepened insight into the regional value added and transfer payments.
Moreover, we evaluated the people's perception of both today's and the designed landscape and estimated the willingness of the local population to pay for multifunctional agriculture.